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Siddhi Durve.

the future of the automotive industry

Electric Vehicle

Research Paper

This research paper aims to provide a comprehensive study of electric vehicles (EVs), examining their technological advancements, environmental impact, market penetration, and future prospects. This ethnographic research questions whether EVs are the future of our automotive industry or is it just another addition to the failures. 

Electric Vehicles

This report is submitted as a part of the project completed towards the course ANTH 470 / ANTH 570: Doing Anthropology on 1st of December, 2022. I would like to express my gratitude to Prof. Brian McKenna for his valuable feedback and support through the semester long project.

Siddhi Durve

Author's Note

University of Michigan - Dearborn

Electric Vehicles the future of our Automotive Industry

Cars, science, and engineering have always been a part of my life since childhood. The majority of my family members work as engineers and provide their expertise to the automotive sector. As a kid, I was always fascinated to see my father coming home with rolled drawing sheets of die design used to shape the exterior of the car. Seeing my father work for the automotive industry developed my fascination into automobiles. Back in India, there was a constant curiosity about the launch of new vehicles, their features, and the latest technological advancements made by the company. Internal combustion engine vehicles, electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles— which is a combination of internal combustion engine and electric vehicles—have taken over the current automotive industry. Coming to the United States, Detroit—which is the Motor City of the country—has enhanced my interest and developed a new set of curiosities.

One fine evening, I was sitting in the patio and sipping on coffee when I overheard my brother- in-law returning from work and speaking with my sister about the launch of a new electric truck that he was working on. I got involved in the conversation because it revolved around vehicles and I was curious to learn the launch's backstory. To my surprise, I knew very little about the background of electric cars. There was a quick realization that my interest in vehicles was confined to what I read or see after the vehicle is launched. The discussion with my sister and brother-in-law sparked a huge amount of curiosity, and questions regarding electric vehicles in particular and vehicles in general.

As a Product Designer by profession, my enthusiasm and my curiosities were subjected to the vehicle’s exterior and the interior design. Considering an iceberg, a common man can see the beauty of the iceberg which is seen above the sea level. However, he has no idea about how deep the iceberg is under the ocean. I realized that my fascination for vehicles was mostly focused on its design and construction and that very little knowledge about its engineering when I overheard my brother-in-law discussing the production of the electric truck.

Where did the electric vehicle come from? Is the question that kept repeating itself in my head like a bug as I read through many websites and articles regarding the engineering of the electric vehicle. This bug led me to find an answer to ‘How and when did the electric vehicle made its first debut?’ I started reading articles that were related to the history of electric vehicles. An article written by the Department of Energy presented a theory that the electric vehicles were invented more than 100 years ago. Along with the invention of Electric Vehicles, Internal Combustion Engine vehicle—which uses gasoline as a source of power—were trying their ways into more advancements. In the United States, Electric Vehicles made its first debut in 1800s which ran at the top speed of 14 miles per hour. Electric vehicles dominated the market at that time since internal combustion engines had a variety of issues and drawbacks. As electricity became more widely available and easier to use for the average person in the 1910s, electric vehicles started to gain in popularity. Great inventors including Henry Ford, Thomas Edison, and Ferdinand Porsche developed a number of innovations related to electric vehicles. However, in 1912, the price of an internal combustion engine vehicle was $650, while the price of an electric roadster was $1,750. It was during this time that Americans discovered Texas crude oil and gasoline became less expensive. By 1935, electric vehicles saw a huge fall as a result of this discovery.

Despite a sharp decline, inventions and progress in the field of electric vehicles continued. Hybrid electric vehicles—an engine that works on gasoline and electricity—started to come into the market. Hybrid electric vehicles were seen as a way to minimize the electric vehicle's failures, which contributed to a decrease in sales in 1935. However, there are several issues and significant costs associated with the two sources of power.

There were a lot of benefits to driving an electric vehicle in the past and present as well, when they were at their peak. The cost of the energy needed to charge the car was minimal. Along with that, the air pollution caused by the internal combustion engine vehicles, which was at its maximum, was reduced due to the use of electric vehicles. Electric vehicles had also improved their efficiency in stop-and-go traffic in cities. The major drawback of electric vehicles was that their battery energy storage was not adequately developed, which led to a shorter range despite the advancements made in their powertrains. A powertrain is a mechanism that transforms and transmits mechanical energy from the engine to its wheels. Additionally, with the discovery of Texas crude oil and lower prices for gasoline, people began using internal combustion engine vehicles because they provided the greater range and power. Therefore, Internal Combustion Engine vehicles became the most powerful competitors of the electric vehicles in the market of automobiles.

Speaking with my father about hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles, a questions comes up—‘Is it too early to tell whether hybrid electric vehicle will develop as a viable vehicle or will only be a transition vehicle?’ Finding the answer to this question led to the beginning of a more in-depth discussion with my father about hybrid electric and electric vehicles. He replied to the question saying, “Yes, Hybrid electric will always be a transition vehicle. In hybrid electric vehicles, we do not have any option to replace the gasoline or the fuel content that it has. It needs to have its engine in place. Along with that, it needs to be charged even though the vehicle can run using gasoline.” So, how does an hybrid electric engine work? Hybrid electric vehicles are powered by the engine of Internal Combustion and the electric motor. Although the vehicle cannot be plugged in to charge the battery, it charges through regenerative braking and by the internal combustion engine. When the vehicle is on road and is running, the electricity is stored and is used for the operations or some distant output. The discussion with my father continued when he explained the advancements of electric vehicles. He said, “Electric vehicle does not have an engine. Therefore, there is no need of fuel or gasoline. They can run only when they are charged using electricity. The power present in the battery is attached to its powertrain which makes the vehicle move.” A gear train operates when an internal combustion engine or a hybrid electric engine converts the thermal energy from the fuel into mechanical energy, which is then delivered to the powertrain (a model of the engine and wheels as a unit), which causes the wheels to begin moving. A gear train is a collection of several gears that operate sequentially. This set of gears works well for converting one source of power to another.

Returning to the conversation with my brother-in-law, when he mentioned the launch of the electric vehicle, it triggered my desire to know more about electric vehicles. A week later, after reading several websites and articles regarding electric vehicles, I was fortunate enough to have the chance to visit the plant where my brother-in-law works. It was a Friday morning when I visited the site. The atmosphere was very active and there was a lot of noise made by the heavy machineries in the production house. While all of the operators were down there working on building a vehicle, each production engineer had their own cubicle where they worked on the design of the vehicle. Every operator was appointed with a job. The number of operators to work, varies from day to day. Some days the production house is filled with many people and some days there are only few of them working on fewer jobs. The operators are paid on hourly basis on the basis of the requirement. All the operators are given a uniform. The uniform was a blue shirt and a blue pant with a white t-shirt inside. It was mandatory for the entire staff which includes the operators, engineers, managers who visits the production house to wear a helmet, eye-glass and boots for safety purpose. Some had their safety jackets on too. The area where the car was being fitted had a sizable conveyor belt, which proceeded to change its position to the next station. It was a continuous process where the operators worked non stop. For example, if an operator at station 10 is welding exterior sheet metal components, an operator at station 35 was simultaneously assembling the vehicle's seats. The transition of the vehicle moving from one station to another is so seamless and effective that four vehicles are manufactured every hour. A spokesperson said, “The production line here is continuous and if an issue arises during any process, the operator informs its team leader about the problem that is faced. If the team leader is unable to solve the issue, he further escalates the problem to the production engineer. That is how we deal with the manufacturing defects and the problems in the plant. We have strategically planned and designed the task flow for manufacturing the vehicle.” In addition to the operators' seamless and effective functioning, I noticed that a lot of heat was produced because of the tools and energy that was utilized. After my short plant tour, I was made to sit in the waiting area where I noticed a bookshelf. The bookshelf had various automobile magazines and books related to vehicles. While giving a quick glance over the book titles, a book caught my attention— ‘Electric Vehicles - a decade of transition’—I was overwhelmed by the amount of information the book consisted and the drawings of different components used in an electric vehicle. I had plenty of time to read the book before my brother-in-law finished his work. The book seemed to be quite technical overall. Considering I know very little to nothing about the technical side of engineering, I found it extremely challenging to understand. I put the book back where it belonged. On our way back home, my brother-in-law mentioned that placing the batteries in the bed of the vehicle is one of the most crucial steps in putting the vehicle together.

The book had various research papers through 1990 related to the development, the batteries that are used in the vehicle, the vehicle itself, and the hybrid electric vehicles. I could grasp only few things from the book one of which was the research paper on Design and Performance of the Nickel Iron Battery—mentioned in the book by Ken Gentry of Eagle-Pitcher Industries, Inc.— states the theory that the module design and manufacturing was developed based upon:

• The vehicles performance requirements
• The vehicles integration
• The system’s reliability and safety issues of the vehicle
• Battery support requirements that is the thermal, water maintenance and gas management. The integration of the vehicle was a key component of the design since the conversion strategy was required for the batteries to fit inside the available bed. The goals to obtain the best battery performance, a series of engineering test and evaluation were performed that included:
• Single Electrode Testing

• Prototype Module Fabrication and Testing
• Thermal Management Testing and Evaluation
• Single Point Watering and Gas Management System Evaluation
• Mechanical Vibration Testing

I visited a few more websites to learn more about batteries and found explanations for why or how the batteries in electric vehicles are so powerful in terms that the average person might grasp. The majority of batteries we use today in gadgets have a set amount of time period before they run out. However, a battery of an electric vehicle is just like our mobile phone batteries which are rechargeable. An electric vehicle battery has range which means that once the battery has used its defined number of range, it needs to be recharged. The reason why electric vehicles are expensive in today’s market is due to their batteries. The main materials that makes the batteries and the vehicle expensive are cobalt, nickel and manganese along with graphite and lithium. There are many controversies related to the extraction of the materials which are found in the parts of China and South Africa. Due to the fact that these materials are to be mined from the earth, there is a risk that various political concerns might develop. There is a strong probability that supply chain domination will occur in addition to political issues and humanitarian concerns. Moreover, mining lithium from the soil uses a high amount of water which can raise potential agricultural problems. Electric vehicle batteries is not just one huge battery like our normal generalized battery cell, it is a set of thousands of smaller cells. Currently, automakers have turned their interest into using lithium-ion batteries to power their electric vehicles. These set of lithium-ion battery cells are packed into a larger protective shell called modules. These modules are packed together to form a larger battery pack which gives power to the electric vehicle. A fully charged electric vehicle battery gives an average range of 260 mile which is enough for a day trip.

There have been many improvements made to these batteries, and lithium-ion batteries are now recognized as being better than the older nickel-cadmium component batteries. In comparison to the older batteries, these ones are significantly more compact and smaller in size while still providing the same amount of power to the car. Another superior quality of these lithium-ion batteries are that the retain the battery charge for longer duration and are overall consists of lesser taxis materials that can harm the nature. However, with the positives and the advantages that lithium-ion batteries give, the development of these batteries have faced various complications and challenges.

We require a charging station in order to recharge the battery. A set up interview was conducted with my sister, a General Motors employee working as a Dimensional Engineer with an experience of seven years. Speaking with her led me to understand that Original Equipment Manufacturer companies like General Motors have made strides in producing electric utility vehicles, in addition to Electric Car companies like Tesla, Rivian, or Lucid that are attempting to further the technology of an electric vehicle. She says, “General Motors’ first electric vehicle launch was Chevy Bolt. However, there were multiple shortcoming that were faced by the General Motors. It did not have a long range to travel with the full charge.” Being strongly opinionated she added, “Not just Michigan but the entire eastern part of the United States was I think not equipped enough to have an EV industry or Electric vehicle or someone to use an electric vehicle for longer travel as much as the rest is developed.” When the Chevy Bolt was launched, Michigan lacked the infrastructure to offer as many charging stations as the vehicle needed at the frequency of use. Within the state itself it was very difficult and inconvenient for people to use the car for longer distances. Moreover, the batteries used for Chevy Bolt were unable to fully charge. Supporting to this theory she says, “It will just stop charging at certain percentage. And I believe all of these would be technical issues because at that time 2016 was very much early age for General Motors to launch Electric Vehicles. There was no fast charging capability like what Lucid Air or Tesla. They have this fast charging ability that they can be fully charged within an hour which Chevy Bolt did not have or sometimes like won't even start.” Today, the automotive industry have advanced at a level where they can proudly say that the lithium-ion batteries have become the go-to-form of energy storage with extremely high amount of energy density within a smaller volume. Mentioning energy here, I remember the conversation I had with my father when my parents visited me and my sister in the United States from India. Questioning him on how electricity that is used for electric vehicle to charge its battery is produced? he replied, “We have different ways of generating electricity. When we talk about charging the batteries of electric vehicles, we use electricity. So, electricity is produced from natural gas, nuclear energy, coal that is thermal energy, wind energy, hydropower, and solar energy. We have a turbine generator set that converts the energy and produces the electricity. This is the basic module that is used in producing the electricity. For instance, heat is produced when natural gas, thermal energy, atomic or nuclear fission occurs. This heat then makes steam, which helps in rotating the turbine's blades. The blades moves in accordance with the motion of the water or wind in the case of hydropower and wind energy, respectively. Last but not least, solar energy uses a different technique. Using semi-conductors, solar panels turns sunlight directly into electricity.” At some level, we may say that renewable energies like solar, wind, hydro, tidal, can be used for a longer period of time. How can these energy or electricity work in electric vehicles? I sat down with my father one evening in an effort to understand from him how the fundamental systems or the motor of an electric vehicle works. To make me understanding, my father drew a rough sketch of a motor in a book. The sketch of the motor showed that the motor of an electric vehicle consists of a stator, and a motor. The mechanism works around magnetism and the connection between magnetic fields and electric fields. An electro-magnetic field is produced when the electric circuit is closed and the electron move freely along the wire. These electro-magnets or the stator is connected to a shaft that is a rotor. The attraction and repletion of the forces, results into the rotation of the shaft or a rotor. This rotation converts the electricity into a torque which helps the wheels turn.

When we talk about the electricity, not only in the United States but in many countries thermal energy is used to generate electricity. When considering the environment, air pollution is brought on by the production of electricity through thermal energy. However, there are few countries like Netherland who uses solar panels to generate electricity.

These categories of emission are further evaluated according to the tailpipe of the vehicle. The emission is further classified into:
• Wheel-to-Wheel emission basis
Wheel-to-wheel emissions are those brought on by the production, distribution, processing, and use of fuel. The process of mining petroleum from the earth, refining it, distributing the fuel to different stations, and burning it in vehicles produces a lot of emissions in the case of internal combustion engine vehicles, which need gasoline or fuel to pivot the shafts. Most electric power plants emit emissions in addition to numerous other emissions that are produced during the extraction, processing, and distribution of the electricity output.
• Cradle-to-Grave emission basis
Cradle-to-grave emissions consists of emissions considered in wheel-to-wheel basis. In addition to that, emissions are caused due to vehicle and battery manufacturing, recycling and disposal of the vehicle.

In an internal combustion engine vehicle, gasoline is burned and carbon dioxide is released in order to pivot the shafts. An electric vehicle, however, is known for having no tailpipe emissions. I was relaxing on the patio in the late afternoon while browsing through the internet. A Tesla car, a fully electric vehicle, drove by without producing any smoke from its tailpipe. That made me question myself, ‘Are Electric Vehicles Sustainable?’ Grasping from the interview conducted with the General Motors employee, she says, “I believe to a point yes, because it eliminates the issue right now. The man issue that we are seeing is pollution, and Electric Vehicles for sure are going to be a huge contributors of cutting down the carbon dioxide emissions that we see from vehicles which has internal combustion engines.” Many experts agree to the fact that the electric vehicles have proven to be environmental friendly that the internal combustion engine vehicles. To a common man’s eye it is visible that electric vehicles have zero emission and lesser carbon footprint. In a TEDx Talk, Graham Convey talks about how we observe climate change and the reason why the society is changing its interest from Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle to Electric Vehicle. Battery Operated Vehicles are known to be the future of personal transportation. Electric Vehicle does a fantastic job by shifting pollution to no emission. However, the speakers contradicts his statement by explaining how electric vehicles produces emission during the life of the vehicle. Electric Vehicles does emit zero Carbon dioxide but a huge amount of Carbon dioxide is produced while the electric vehicle is in the making. The process takes place as the raw materials are dug from the ground, and then transported to the production plant where the vehicles are made. Each and every step in this process requires energy and therefore we end up emitting carbon dioxide. A conventional vehicle generates 6 tons of carbon dioxide before coming to the showroom. With the knowledge about batteries, materials required to make a battery for Electric Vehicles is very difficult to find and the later part of mating the battery cells requires a huge amount of energy. This generates around 12 tons of carbon dioxide emission. A study suggests that carbon dioxide emissions from electric vehicles are 59% higher than internal combustion engine vehicle. Supporting to the emission caused by the manufacturing of the batteries, production of electricity produces equal amount of carbon dioxide which contributes in increasing the percentage of air pollution, unless people Strat using renewable source like solar energy to charge their vehicles. Knowing these issues and facts, can we say that electric vehicles are environmental friendly?

Through the desk research and many conversations, my knowledge was fed with how the batteries of an electric vehicles are made and that they provide the range that an electric vehicle requires. But one question kept bugging me—how are batteries disposed off? The batteries of electric vehicle utilizes the entire base of the vehicle. Once they have ran their course what happens to them? A study says that the content of the battery can be recovered and reused. However, this process can require an intensive water usage, and again, they contribute into the emission of carbon dioxide. This is the reality of today. Maybe a few years later with constant innovations and advancements in technologies, a solution can be provided to dispose-off the battery in more sustainable way. 

Currently along with the Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles, we see many electric vehicles on road. That is what make me wonder ‘How did the Electric Vehicles see a great boom in their sales?’ In a TEDx talk by Michiel Langezaal, In the coming future, with the new technology and new inventions, electric cars will charge faster, and they will have more range. The speaker makes a sale comparison of Tesla type model S selling 289 vehicles in Netherland and Audi A6 and BMW 5 series combined makes a sale of 244 vehicles. He says, “Another reason for disruption besides price is that we can charge the electric car at home and is as easy as putting the car into the wall socket.” A Forbes article quotes, “Despite supply chain issues and higher upfront costs, the automotive industry reports strong performances in Electric Vehicles, with Ford announcing a growth rate of 139%, Volkswagen of 65%, and Tesla +7.7% of their current stock market— an increase of 81%.” The current rise in the sales of electric vehicles can be because of the high prices of gasoline or fuel. It is challenging for the automotive industries to acquire the raw materials required to build batteries. Possible reason is that the lithium battery mining is controlled by China with 80% of the world’s raw materials, holding 77% of all cell capacity and manufacturing 60% of global battery components. With government imposing lockdown during the pandemic, the global battery production was into a huge threat. However, this did not stop the automotive industries from producing and making batteries and invest in electric vehicles and the materials that is require to make a battery. Currently, Tesla has announced its opening of Gigafactory in Texas which is their Manufacturing house and purchased 10,000 acre land in Nevada to begin mining. General Motors have announced that it will invest in Controlled Thermal Resources—a firm that uses geothermal energy to extract lithium. Even though, the automotive industries are facing the issues of material shortage, it is not not stopping them from manufacturing electric vehicles.

The peak of my curiosity led me to find out the answers to my questions—‘How and when did the electric vehicle made its first debut?’, ‘Is it too early to tell whether hybrid electric vehicle will develop as a viable vehicle or will only be a transition vehicle?’, ‘Are Electric Vehicles Sustainable?’, ‘How did the Electric Vehicles see a great boom in their sales?’ However, researching on electric vehicles, its components, its mechanism, and business made me put myself into a position to think over the question ‘Are Electric Vehicles Booming or are they a significant part of forthcoming failure to our automotive industry?’ I tried to find answer to this final question not by reading any article or browsing through internet, but with the conversations and discussions that I had with my family members who work in the automotive industry for a very long time now. In the interview with my sister, a General Motors’ employee, she replied to the question by saying, “I would want them to be the future, but I don't see them as a near future, obviously, they are at some point. But it's going to take a long, long time before Electric Vehicles replace the conventional vehicles. It has to take a lot of research, a lot of investment, and a lot of engineering to be done on the Electric Vehicles. And not just the vehicle as such, but also the infrastructure. Countries like the United States, Germany, or any European country, for that matter, have the ability to change their infrastructure and bring these changes into their surrounding that can accommodate an electric vehicle. But then there are developing countries, underdeveloped countries, these are the countries that are actually to be thought about. Because you don't know when Electric Vehicles are going to be available in those countries to begin with. And if they are available, how are they going to make change in their infrastructure, in a way that adapts to the requirements of Electric Vehicles.” Countries like the United States and Germany or United Kingdom for that matter are strengthening their infrastructure in a way that they have introduced a designated traffic lane specially for Electric Vehicles under the tagline of Zero Emission zone. However, there are many other countries who are struggling with the supply of electricity. The struggles and challenges of electricity starts from their daily household usage, therefore it can be said that these countries are not ready for electric vehicles. Not only these countries, but is the world ready for the electric vehicle as a source of sustainable lifestyle? Well, it is quite a subjective and a personal choice to decide whether it is sustainable or a harm to the environment. I believe that contradictions exist regarding the sustainability strategy that the automotive industry employs. Even if the studies have proven to be against electric vehicles, we cannot forget that it emits zero carbon dioxide when it is on road. When a consumer purchases an electric vehicle, he uses the vehicle for at least six to seven years, and using a vehicle which emits zero carbon dioxide in the environment is much, much better than using a conventional internal combustion engine vehicle where it emits carbon dioxide over its daily usage. Using an electric vehicle can balance out the emission that it creates while making it. And moreover, if renewable resources are used to generated the electricity, resulting into the creation of lesser carbon footptint. Earlier, I said that deciding whether electric vehicles are the future or not is a matter of personal opinion. Overall, referring to my study, I think, that electric vehicles are the future of the automotive industry and will bring a big change into the society. There are constant innovations going on in the world of engineering and electric vehicle will reach to its higher notes.

The peak of my curiosity led me to find out the answers to my questions—‘How and when did the electric vehicle made its first debut?’, ‘Is it too early to tell whether hybrid electric vehicle will develop as a viable vehicle or will only be a transition vehicle?’, ‘Are Electric Vehicles Sustainable?’, ‘How did the Electric Vehicles see a great boom in their sales?’ However, researching on electric vehicles, its components, its mechanism, and business made me put myself into a position to think over the question ‘Are Electric Vehicles Booming or are they a significant part of forthcoming failure to our automotive industry?’ I tried to find answer to this final question not by reading any article or browsing through internet, but with the conversations and discussions that I had with my family members who work in the automotive industry for a very long time now. In the interview with my sister, a General Motors’ employee, she replied to the question by saying, “I would want them to be the future, but I don't see them as a near future, obviously, they are at some point. But it's going to take a long, long time before Electric Vehicles replace the conventional vehicles. It has to take a lot of research, a lot of investment, and a lot of engineering to be done on the Electric Vehicles. And not just the vehicle as such, but also the infrastructure. Countries like the United States, Germany, or any European country, for that matter, have the ability to change their infrastructure and bring these changes into their surrounding that can accommodate an electric vehicle. But then there are developing countries, underdeveloped countries, these are the countries that are actually to be thought about. Because you don't know when Electric Vehicles are going to be available in those countries to begin with. And if they are available, how are they going to make change in their infrastructure, in a way that adapts to the requirements of Electric Vehicles.” Countries like the United States and Germany or United Kingdom for that matter are strengthening their infrastructure in a way that they have introduced a designated traffic lane specially for Electric Vehicles under the tagline of Zero Emission zone. However, there are many other countries who are struggling with the supply of electricity. The struggles and challenges of electricity starts from their daily household usage, therefore it can be said that these countries are not ready for electric vehicles. Not only these countries, but is the world ready for the electric vehicle as a source of sustainable lifestyle? Well, it is quite a subjective and a personal choice to decide whether it is sustainable or a harm to the environment. I believe that contradictions exist regarding the sustainability strategy that the automotive industry employs. Even if the studies have proven to be against electric vehicles, we cannot forget that it emits zero carbon dioxide when it is on road. When a consumer purchases an electric vehicle, he uses the vehicle for at least six to seven years, and using a vehicle which emits zero carbon dioxide in the environment is much, much better than using a conventional internal combustion engine vehicle where it emits carbon dioxide over its daily usage. Using an electric vehicle can balance out the emission that it creates while making it. And moreover, if renewable resources are used to generated the electricity, resulting into the creation of lesser carbon footptint. Earlier, I said that deciding whether electric vehicles are the future or not is a matter of personal opinion. Overall, referring to my study, I think, that electric vehicles are the future of the automotive industry and will bring a big change into the society. There are constant innovations going on in the world of engineering and electric vehicle will reach to its higher notes.

References

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https://www.motortrend.com/features/how-electric-cars-work-ev-differences-definitions/

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Taub, E.A (2022) E.V.s Start With a Bigger Carbon Footprint. But That Doesn't Last, The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/10/19/business/electric-vehicles-carbon-footprint-batteries.html

Ewing, J. And Ko, B.G (2022) How a Quebec lithium mine may help make electric cars affordable, The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/09/20/business/electric-vehicles-lithium-quebec.html

A.HillbPersonEnvelopeMyriamNeaimehbYvonneHuebnercPhilip T.BlythebRichard J.Dawsona et al. (2017) How do cities support electric vehicles and what difference does it make?, Technological Forecasting and Social Change. North-Holland.

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Thank You!

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